Although contracts and trust play a crucial role in such relationships, prior studies on both governance solutions are generally confined to single theories, paradigms and viewpoints. Drawing on an in-depth case study, survey data and conceptual developments, the author advances a more integrative framework. He probes issues such as:- the tension between the need and the ability to contract- trust and contracts as co-evolving and self-reinforcing phenomena- contractual functions other than coordination and control- dialectical tensions stemming from contract application- standardization of contracting practices.
By exploring these topics, the book offers novel perspectives on the role of trust in interorganizational relationships, shifting our attention and creation to the discovery of value by collaborating partners. The book offers novel perspectives on the role of contracts and trust in interorganizational relationships, shifting our attention from the creation and appropriation to the discovery of value by collaborating partners.
The book will be useful for managers as well as practitioners interested in the governance and management of inter-organizational relationships. It will also be an important resource for academics and students interested in strategy, organization and organizational theory. Vlaar's discussion is informed by an unusually deep knowledge of the literature, and significantly pushes the research frontier by examining A"non-standardA" but crucial issues, notably how mutual understanding and recognition are preconditions for value discovery and creation.
Help Centre. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Be the first to write a review. Add to Wishlist. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. January Main article: Riba. Main articles: Ibn Khaldun and Muqaddimah. See also: Asabiyyah. See also: Female labor force in the Muslim world and Islamic economics in Pakistan. Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. Macmillan Reference USA. Europe and the Middle Ages , Medieval Islamic Political Thought.
Edinburgh University Press. Cambridge University Press. Structure of Politics Under Aurangzeb Kanishka Publishers Distributors. Shahid Alam The Daily Star Op-ed. Harrison , Peter L. Berger Developing cultures: case studies. Kovalev, Alexis C. In Mohamed Ariff ed. It is agreed that all agricultural societies conform to a given demographic pattern of behaviour, which includes a high birth-rate and a slightly lower death-rate, significant enough to allow a slow population increase of 0. Other demographic characteristics of this society are high infant mortality, with deaths per within the first year of birth, a lower average life expectancy, of twenty to twenty-five years, and a broadly based population pyramid, where the number of young people at the bottom of the pyramid is very high in relationship to the rest of the population, and that children are set to work at an early stage.
Islamic society diverged from this demographic profile in some significant points, although not always consistently. Studies have shown that during certain periods, such factors as attitudes to marriage and sex, birth control, birth and death rates, age of marriage and patterns of marriage, family size and migration patterns, varied from the traditional agricultural model.
No less than three separate studies about the life expectancy of religious scholars, two from 11th century Muslim Spain, and one from the Middle East, concluded that members of this occupational group enjoyed a life expectancy of 69, 75, and Kevin Jaques", Journal of Islamic Studies , 18 2 : —, doi : The ability to read and write was far more widely enjoyed in the early medieval Islamic empire and in fourth-century-B.
Athens than in any other cultures of their times. We should note that Chinese books were printed in small editions of a hundred or so copies. The Muslim world's eventual introduction of state funding under Nizam al-Mulk in the eleventh century was quickly followed by partisan religious squabbling over education and the gradual fall of Islam from its place of cultural and scientific preeminence. Perhaps it will prove to have been even more important than the recent move from typographic culture to the Internet. The result was remarkable.
As historian Jonathan Bloom informs us, paper encouraged "an efflorescence of books and written culture incomparably more brilliant than was known anywhere in Europe until the invention of printing with movable type in the fifteenth century. Muslim young men were encouraged to memorize the Qur'an as part of their transition to adulthood, and while most presumably did not though little is known about literacy levels in pre-Mongol Muslim societies , others did.
Types of literacy in any event varied, as Nelly Hanna has recently suggested, and are best studied as part of the complex social dynamics and contexts of individual Muslim societies. The need to conform commercial contracts and business arrangements to Islamic law provided a further impetus for literacy, especially likely in commercial centers.
Ebook Contracts And Trust In Alliances Discovering Creating And Appropriating Value 2008
Scholars often engaged in commercial activity and craftsmen or tradesmen often spent time studying in madrasas. The connection between what Brian Street has called " maktab literacy" and commercial literacy was real and exerted a steady pressure on individuals to upgrade their reading skills. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Retrieved 23 January Brill, p. In AD the Abbasid caliph al-Muqtadir had all practising physicians examined and those who passed were granted certificates ijazah. In this way, Baghdad was able to get rid of its quacks Hitti, The ijazah was the principal means by which scholars and Sufis passed on their teachings to students, granting them permission to carry on their teachings.
Falagas, Effie A.
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Zarkadoulia, George Samonis Teheran, Iran: Zuhuri. Electronic Journal of Sociology. Quote:"Some studies have found marked decreases in overall poverty levels, including declining levels of extreme poverty Khandker, , while other studies do not find the same direct effect Morris and Barnes, ; Kan, Olds, and Kah, ; Goetz and Gupta, Still, other studies provide mixed results Copestake, Bhalotra, and Johnson, ; Morduch, The World Bank Economic Review. Islamic studies. Democracy consensus consultation Feminism Jurisprudence use of analogy decision-making schools Peace Quietism Secularism Early social change State.
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Production there is thriving even more than before. And so it goes with the second and third increase. All the additional labor serves luxury and wealth, in contrast to the original labor that served the necessity of life. Ibn Khaldun on economic growth.
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